Delivering energy efficiency improvements in the housing sector is one of the key challenges faced. It is a complex societal, legal, financial, promotional, and energy issue, with few large-scale success stories yet. In this Covenant of Mayors webinar, two national level approaches are introduced. They are both successful, blending EU (JESSICA) funds with other funds in creating financial instruments for residential building retrofits. The investments are financed by loans, rather than by grants.